King Robert the Bruce of Scotland (1306 - 1329)
Name: King Robert the Bruce of Scotland
Father: Robert de Brus
Mother: Marjory Countess of Carrick
Relation to Charles III: 20th great-grandfather
House of: Bruce
Born: July 11, 1274 at Turnberry Castle, Ayrshire
Ascended to the throne: February 10, 1306 aged 31 years
Crowned: March 27, 1306 at Scone Abbey, Perthshire
Married:(1) Isabella of Mar, 1295
Married:(2) Elizabeth de Burgh, 1302
Children: Marjorie, David, John, Matlida, Margaret plus several illegitimate
Died: June 7, 1329, at Cardross, Dumbartonshire, aged 54 years, 10 months, and 26 days
Buried at: Dunfermline Abbey (body) and Melrose Abbey (heart)
Succeeded by: his son David
After Balliol’s abdication in 1296 Scotland was without a monarch for 10 years and ruled remotely by King Edward I of England. Scots national resistance developed into a war of independence in which William Wallace and then Robert Bruce played a leading role. Wallace won a victory over the English at Stirling Bridge in 1297 and proclaimed himself Guardian of Scotland. The following year Edward invaded Scotland again and defeated William Wallace at Falkirk. Wallace went underground but was captured and in 1305, tried and hung in London.
In 1298 Robert Bruce took over the title of Guardian of Scotland and, having killed his rival John Comyn, claimed the throne as the great-great grandson of David I and in 1306 had himself crowned king at Scone as Robert I. Independence was made easier by the death of Edward I as he set out to claim back Scotland. Bruce set about removing the English from Scotland and by early 1314 Stirling was the only castle in English hands. An English army sent to break the siege was routed by Bruce’s smaller Scottish force at Bannockburn in June 1314.
Six year later in 1320 Bruce and the Scottish nobles issued the Declaration of Arbroath asserting Scottish Independence ‘For as longs as one hundred of us shall remain alive we shall never in any wise consent to submit to the rule of the English, for it is not for glory that we fight … but for freedom alone.’. However, a truce with Edward II of England failed to stop hostilities which continued until Edward II was deposed in 1327.
The Treaty of Edinburgh between Robert I and Edward III in 1328 recognised Scotland's independence, ending the 30 years of Wars of Independence. Edward agreed to the marriage of Robert Bruce’s son David to his younger sister Joan daughter of Edward II. Robert Bruce died at his house in Cardross a year later of a serious illness described by some as leprosy.
Timeline for King Robert the Bruce of Scotland
|- 1306 Interregnum period with no Scottish monarch and rule by Edward I of England.
|Andrew de Moray and William Wallace lead the Scots to victory over England at Stirling Bridge.
|Edward invades Scotland again and defeats William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk
|France and England make peace, releasing forces to attack Scotland
|Stirling Castle, the last of the Scottish castles to be captured by Edward I
|Wallace is captured and taken to London, where he is tried for treason, and hanged, drawn, and quartered
|Robert Bruce is crowned king at Scone but is driven into hiding by the English occupation army of Edward I
|Edward I sets out to invade Scotland but dies on his way north. Bruce begins campaign to drive the English out of Scotland
|English forces defeated by Bruce at Loudon Hill
|King Robert the Bruce convenes his first parliament, at St Andrew
|The Scots plunder the North of England
|Bruce besieges Stirling Castle. An English army sent to break the siege is routed at the Battle of Bannockburn
|Robert the Bruce captures Berwick on Tweed.
|Nobles assert Scottish independence in the Declaration of Arbroath.
|Truce between Bruce and Edward II fails to stop warfare between the two countries
|Treaty of Edinburgh between King Robert I and Edward III which recognised Scotland's independence, ending the 30 years of Wars of Independence.
|Robert the Bruce dies at Cardross Castle possibly of leprosy.