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King Henry III (1216 - 1272)

Name: King Henry III
Born: October 1, 1207 at Winchester
Parents: King John and Isabella of Angouleme
Relation to Elizabeth II: 20th great-grandfather
House of: Plantagenet
Ascended to the throne: October 18, 1216 aged 9 years
Crowned: October 28, 1216 at Gloucester and May 17, 1220 at Westminster Abbey
Married: Eleanor of Provence, Daughter of Raymond Berenger
Children: Six sons including Edward I, and three daughters
Died: November 16, 1272 at Westminster, aged 65 years, 1 month, and 16 days
Buried at: Westminster Abbey
Reigned for: 56 years, and 29 days
Succeeded by: his son Edward

King of England from 1216, when he succeeded John, but the royal powers were exercised by a regency until 1232, and by two French nobles, Peter des Roches and Peter des Rivaux, until the barons forced their expulsion in 1234, marking the start of Henry's personal rule. His financial commitments to the papacy and his foreign favourites antagonized the barons who issued the Provisions of Oxford in 1258, limiting the king's power. Henry's refusal to accept the provisions led to the second Barons' War in 1264, a revolt of nobles led by his brother-in-law Simon de Montfort. Henry was defeated at Lewes, Sussex, and imprisoned, but restored to the throne after the royalist victory at Evesham in 1265. He was succeeded by his son Edward I.

On his release Henry was weak and senile and his eldest son, Edward, took charge of the government.

Timeline for King Henry III

Year Event
1216Henry III is crowned King at the age of nine. England is ruled temporarily by two regents, Hubert de Burgh and William the Marshal
1217The French lose the battles of Lincoln and Dover and are driven back to France
1220Building of Salisbury cathedral begun
1222De Burgh successfully puts down an insurrection supporting the French king Louis Vlll’s claim to the throne
1227Henry takes full control of the government of England, but retains de Burgh as his main adviser
1232Hubert de Burgh is dismissed as adviser
1236Henry marries Eleanor of Provence
1237The Treaty of York with Alexander II of Scotland agrees the border between England and Scotland
1238Simon de Montfort marries Henry’s sister, Eleanor
1240Henry's Great Council is called 'Parliament' for the first time
1245Henry lays the foundation stone for the rebuilding of Westminster Abbey
1258The English barons, led by de Montfort, rebel against Henry’s misgovernment. They present a list of grievances to Henry, who signs the Provisions of Oxford, which limit royal power
1261Henry repudiates the Provisions of Oxford
1264The Baron’s War breaks out. De Montfort defeats Henry at Lewes. Henry is captured.
1265Simon de Montfort summons the first directly elected English Parliament
1265Some of the barons break their alliance with de Montfort and, led by Prince Edward, kill him at the Battle of Evesham
1266The Dictum of Kenilworth restores Henry's authority and annuls the Provisions of Oxford
1267In the Treaty of Montgomery, Henry recognizes Llewellyn ap Gruffydd as ruler of Wales
1272Henry III dies in the Palace of Westminster