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King Edward I Longshanks (1272 - 1307)
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Name: King Edward I Longshanks
Born: June 17, 1239 at Westminster
Parents: Henry III ad Eleanor of Provence
Relation to Elizabeth II: 19th great-grandfather
House of: Plantagenet
Ascended to the throne: November 20, 1272 aged 33 years
Crowned: August 19, 1274 at Westminster Abbey
Married: (1) Eleanor, Daughter of Ferdinand III of Castile, (2) Margaret, Daughter of Philip III of France
Children: Six sons including Edward II,and twelve daughters
Died: July 7, 1307 at Burgh-by-Sands, Nr Carlisle, Cumbria, aged 68 years, and 19 days
Buried at: Westminster Abbey
Reigned for: 34 years, 7 months, and 14 days
Succeeded by: his son Edward II
King of England from 1272, son of Henry III (1207–72). He led the royal forces against Simon de Montfort (the Younger) in the Barons' War of 1264–67, and was on a crusade when he succeeded to the throne. He established English rule over all of Wales in 1282–84, and secured recognition of his overlordship from the Scottish king, although the Scots under Sir William Wallace and Robert (I) the Bruce fiercely resisted actual conquest. His reign saw Parliament move towards its modern form with the Model Parliament of 1295. He married Eleanor of Castile (1254–90) and in 1299 married Margaret, daughter of Philip III of France. He was succeeded by his son Edward II (1284–1327).
Edward was a noted castle builder, including the northern Welsh Conway castle, Caernarvon castle, Beaumaris castle, and Harlech castle. He was also responsible for building bastides to defend the English position in France.
Robert Bruce is crowned King of Scotland
Edward attempts to invade Scotland again, but dies on his way north
Edward learns that he has succeeded to the throne on his way home from the Crusade
Edward is crowned in Westminster Abbey
Edward invades North Wales and defeats Llewellyn ap Gruffydd the last ruler of an independent Wales
Independence of the Welsh is ended by the Statute of Rhuddlan
Edward's wife Eleanor dies at Harby in Nottinghamshire. Her body is brought back to London and a cross erected at each stop along the journey - Geddington, Hardingston, Waltham, and the most famous at Charing Cross.
Edward chooses John Balliol to be the new King of Scotland
Model Parliament is summoned
John Balliol reneges on his allegiance to Edward and signs alliance with King Philip IV of France
Edward invades Scotland, defeats the Scots at Dunbar and deposes Balliol. He then takes over the throne of Scotland and removes the Stone of Scone to Westminster.
Scots rise against English rule and, led by William Wallace, defeat Edward at the Battle of Stirling Bridge
Edward invades Scotland again and defeats William Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk
Edward marries Margaret of France
Edward makes his son Prince of Wales, a title conferred on every first born son of the monarchy ever since.
William Wallace is executed in London.
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